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  • 25 Nov 2014
      إلى جميع مستخدمي الهواتف الذكية بنظام Android: احذروا هذا الفيروس
    822 Posted by MSP Blogger
  •   إلى جميع مستخدمي الهواتف الذكية بنظام Android: احذروا هذا الفيروس
    Nov 25, 2014 822
  • 07 Sep 2014
    SHOCK ASTEROID WARNING: Planet earth faces 100 YEARS of killer strikes starting in 2017 (Sunday Express rights). A previously unknown asteroid belt has been located in deep space and is now hurtling towards our part of the solar system. It means a 'global killer' could collide with Earth as soon as 2020, wiping out life as we know it and changing the climate for millennia. The terrifying predictions came as NASA revealed disturbing new data showing 400 impacts are expected between 2017 and 2113, based on new observational data of objects seen in space over the past 60 days. Most will have a maximum diameter of around 100 metres - the size of seven double decker buses - and the potential to cause significant damage. But concerned scientists warned a colossal "monster" is also heading our way, with one 'mega' asteroid threatening earth in just SIX years. It follows claims this week by physicist Professor Brian Cox that a bus-sized asteroid, named 2014 EC, came within 61,637 kilometres (38,300 miles) of Earth in March. He said there is an "asteroid with our name on it" and it is only a matter of time before an asteroid large enough to wipe out the human race collides with Earth. Many believe an asteroid was responsible for killing the dinosaurs with a similar life-changing event potentially just around the corner. Professor Bill Napier, an astronomy expert at the University of Buckingham, said a strike by either an asteroid or debris from a comet could have devastating consequences. He said: "If something like this happened, depending on where it hit it would be absolutely life-altering. "The atmospheric chemistry would be upset by cutting out sunlight. It would be like a nuclear winter and could last for tens of thousands of years. "These comets are 200-300km (186 miles) in diameter they are sheer monsters and could sterilise the earth if we are hit by one.    
    901 Posted by Rony Semaan
  • SHOCK ASTEROID WARNING: Planet earth faces 100 YEARS of killer strikes starting in 2017 (Sunday Express rights). A previously unknown asteroid belt has been located in deep space and is now hurtling towards our part of the solar system. It means a 'global killer' could collide with Earth as soon as 2020, wiping out life as we know it and changing the climate for millennia. The terrifying predictions came as NASA revealed disturbing new data showing 400 impacts are expected between 2017 and 2113, based on new observational data of objects seen in space over the past 60 days. Most will have a maximum diameter of around 100 metres - the size of seven double decker buses - and the potential to cause significant damage. But concerned scientists warned a colossal "monster" is also heading our way, with one 'mega' asteroid threatening earth in just SIX years. It follows claims this week by physicist Professor Brian Cox that a bus-sized asteroid, named 2014 EC, came within 61,637 kilometres (38,300 miles) of Earth in March. He said there is an "asteroid with our name on it" and it is only a matter of time before an asteroid large enough to wipe out the human race collides with Earth. Many believe an asteroid was responsible for killing the dinosaurs with a similar life-changing event potentially just around the corner. Professor Bill Napier, an astronomy expert at the University of Buckingham, said a strike by either an asteroid or debris from a comet could have devastating consequences. He said: "If something like this happened, depending on where it hit it would be absolutely life-altering. "The atmospheric chemistry would be upset by cutting out sunlight. It would be like a nuclear winter and could last for tens of thousands of years. "These comets are 200-300km (186 miles) in diameter they are sheer monsters and could sterilise the earth if we are hit by one.    
    Sep 07, 2014 901
  • 09 Aug 2014
    There is currently an Ebola outbreak putting all of us at risk. Pls help educate all around u by sending this msg to all your contacts. What is EBOLA? It's a virus that attacks a person blood system: Ebola is what scientists call a haemorraghic fever - it operates by making its victims bleed from almostanywhere on their body. Usually victims bleed to death. Ebola is highly contagious;Being transmitted via contact with body fluids such as blood, sweat, saliva, semen or other body discharges. Ebola is however NOT AN AIRBORNE VIRUS! EXTREMELY deadly:About 90% of people that catch Ebola will die from it.It's one of the deadliest diseases in the world,killing in just a few weeks. Untreatable(no cure):Ebola has no known treatment or cure.Victims are usually treated for symptoms with the faint hope that they recover. How Do I Know Someone has Ebola? •Fever•Headache•Diarrhoea•Vomiting•Weakness•Joint & Muscle pains•Stomach Pain•Lack of Appetite Protect Yourself:•Wash Your Hands with Soap Do this a lot. You can also use a good hand sanitizer. Avoid unnecessary physical contact with people. ■Restrict yourself to food you prepared yourself. ■Disinfect Your SurroundingsThe virus cannot survive disinfectants,heat, direct sunlight,detergents and soaps. Clean up!:•Fumigate If you have Pests.•Rodents can be carriers of Ebola.•Fumigate your environment & dispose off the carcasses properly!•Dead bodies CAN still transmit Ebola. •Don't touch them without protective gear or better yet avoid them altogether. Protect Yourself:•Use protective gear if you must care or go near someone you suspect has Ebola. Report:•Report any suspicious symptoms in yourself or anyone else IMMEDIATELY. Do not delay! Educate Everyone:•Tell your neighbours,colleagues and domestic staff (anyone really). Basically you're safer when everyone is educated.
    795 Posted by Rony Semaan
  • There is currently an Ebola outbreak putting all of us at risk. Pls help educate all around u by sending this msg to all your contacts. What is EBOLA? It's a virus that attacks a person blood system: Ebola is what scientists call a haemorraghic fever - it operates by making its victims bleed from almostanywhere on their body. Usually victims bleed to death. Ebola is highly contagious;Being transmitted via contact with body fluids such as blood, sweat, saliva, semen or other body discharges. Ebola is however NOT AN AIRBORNE VIRUS! EXTREMELY deadly:About 90% of people that catch Ebola will die from it.It's one of the deadliest diseases in the world,killing in just a few weeks. Untreatable(no cure):Ebola has no known treatment or cure.Victims are usually treated for symptoms with the faint hope that they recover. How Do I Know Someone has Ebola? •Fever•Headache•Diarrhoea•Vomiting•Weakness•Joint & Muscle pains•Stomach Pain•Lack of Appetite Protect Yourself:•Wash Your Hands with Soap Do this a lot. You can also use a good hand sanitizer. Avoid unnecessary physical contact with people. ■Restrict yourself to food you prepared yourself. ■Disinfect Your SurroundingsThe virus cannot survive disinfectants,heat, direct sunlight,detergents and soaps. Clean up!:•Fumigate If you have Pests.•Rodents can be carriers of Ebola.•Fumigate your environment & dispose off the carcasses properly!•Dead bodies CAN still transmit Ebola. •Don't touch them without protective gear or better yet avoid them altogether. Protect Yourself:•Use protective gear if you must care or go near someone you suspect has Ebola. Report:•Report any suspicious symptoms in yourself or anyone else IMMEDIATELY. Do not delay! Educate Everyone:•Tell your neighbours,colleagues and domestic staff (anyone really). Basically you're safer when everyone is educated.
    Aug 09, 2014 795
  • 26 Jul 2014
      Atlantis The Palm fights fire rumours on Twitter In response to false images recirculated, the hotel on Monday issued the following message through its official Twitter account: Recent posts on social media stating that the fire at the Atlantis are incorrect & images attached are from the 2008 pre-opening incident. The images circulated in fact referenced a fire which took place in September 2008 when sparks from ongoing welding work within the lobby area spread to wooden boxes and other inflammable materials stored nearby. "Insurance claims could range anywhere from US $14 million for fit-out damage and other damage to the exteriors, to more than US $30 million if the structure and surrounding areas have been damaged as well," an insurance expert who wished to remain unnamed, told Construction Week at the time.
    798 Posted by MSP Blogger
  •   Atlantis The Palm fights fire rumours on Twitter In response to false images recirculated, the hotel on Monday issued the following message through its official Twitter account: Recent posts on social media stating that the fire at the Atlantis are incorrect & images attached are from the 2008 pre-opening incident. The images circulated in fact referenced a fire which took place in September 2008 when sparks from ongoing welding work within the lobby area spread to wooden boxes and other inflammable materials stored nearby. "Insurance claims could range anywhere from US $14 million for fit-out damage and other damage to the exteriors, to more than US $30 million if the structure and surrounding areas have been damaged as well," an insurance expert who wished to remain unnamed, told Construction Week at the time.
    Jul 26, 2014 798
  • 16 Jul 2014
      What is UNIX? UNIX Introduction UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren't covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session. Types of UNIX There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X. Here in the School, we use Solaris on our servers and workstations, and Fedora Linux on the servers and desktop PCs. The UNIX operating system The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs. The kernel The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls. As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands. The shell The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems). The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default. The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands. Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again. History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands.   Files and processes Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process. A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier). A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc. Examples of files: a document (report, essay etc.) the text of a program written in some high-level programming language instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file); a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files.   The Directory Structure All the files are grouped together in the directory structure. The file-system is arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree. The top of the hierarchy is traditionally called root (written as a slash / ) In the diagram above, we see that the home directory of the undergraduate student "ee51vn" contains two sub-directories (docs and pics) and a file called report.doc. The full path to the file report.doc is "/home/its/ug1/ee51vn/report.doc" Starting an UNIX terminal To open an UNIX terminal window, click on the "Terminal" icon from Applications/Accessories menus.   An UNIX Terminal window will then appear with a % prompt, waiting for you to start entering commands.
    571 Posted by MSP Blogger
  •   What is UNIX? UNIX Introduction UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren't covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session. Types of UNIX There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X. Here in the School, we use Solaris on our servers and workstations, and Fedora Linux on the servers and desktop PCs. The UNIX operating system The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs. The kernel The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls. As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands. The shell The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems). The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default. The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands. Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again. History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands.   Files and processes Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process. A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier). A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc. Examples of files: a document (report, essay etc.) the text of a program written in some high-level programming language instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file); a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files.   The Directory Structure All the files are grouped together in the directory structure. The file-system is arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree. The top of the hierarchy is traditionally called root (written as a slash / ) In the diagram above, we see that the home directory of the undergraduate student "ee51vn" contains two sub-directories (docs and pics) and a file called report.doc. The full path to the file report.doc is "/home/its/ug1/ee51vn/report.doc" Starting an UNIX terminal To open an UNIX terminal window, click on the "Terminal" icon from Applications/Accessories menus.   An UNIX Terminal window will then appear with a % prompt, waiting for you to start entering commands.
    Jul 16, 2014 571
  • 16 Jul 2014
    What is Linux Linux is, in simplest terms, an operating system. It is the software on a computer that enables applications and the computer operator to access the devices on the computer to perform desired functions. The operating system (OS) relays instructions from an application to, for instance, the computer's processor. The processor performs the instructed task, then sends the results back to the application via the operating system. Explained in these terms, Linux is very similar to other operating systems, such as Windows and OS X. But something sets Linux apart from these operating systems. The Linux operating system represented a $25 billion ecosystem in 2008. Since its inception in 1991, Linux has grown to become a force in computing, powering everything from the New York Stock Exchange to mobile phones to supercomputers to consumer devices. As an open operating system, Linux is developed collaboratively, meaning no one company is solely responsible for its development or ongoing support. Companies participating in the Linux economy share research and development costs with their partners and competitors. This spreading of development burden amongst individuals and companies has resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and unheralded software innovation. Over 1,000 developers, from at least 100 different companies, contribute to every kernel release. In the past two years alone, over 3,200 developers from 200 companies have contributed to the kernel--which is just one small piece of a Linux distribution. This article will explore the various components of the Linux operating system, how they are created and work together, the communities of Linux, and Linux's incredible impact on the IT ecosystem. Where is Linux? One of the most noted properties of Linux is where it can be used. Windows and OS X are predominantly found on personal computing devices such as desktop and laptop computers. Other operating systems, such as Symbian, are found on small devices such as phones and PDAs, while mainframes and supercomputers found in major academic and corporate labs use specialized operating systems such as AS/400 and the Cray OS. Linux, which began its existence as a server OS and Has become useful as a desktop OS, can also be used on all of these devices. “From wristwatches to supercomputers,” is the popular description of Linux' capabilities. The Future of Linux Linux is already successful on many different kinds of devices, but there are also many technological areas where Linux is moving towards, even as desktop and server development continues to grow faster than any other operating system today. Linux is being installed on the system BIOS of laptop and notebook computers, which will enable users to turn their devices on in a matter of seconds, bringing up a streamlined Linux environment. This environment will have Internet connectivity tools such as a web browser and an e-mail client, allowing users to work on the Internet without having to boot all the way into their device's primary operating system--even if that operating system is Windows. At the same time, Linux is showing up on mobile Internet devices (MIDs). This includes embedded devices such as smartphones and PDAs, as well as netbook devices--small laptop-type machines that feature the core functionality of their larger counterparts in a smaller, more energy-efficient package. The growth of cloud computing is a natural fit for Linux, which already runs many of the Internet's web servers. Linux enables cloud services such as Amazon's A3 to work with superior capability to deliver online applications and information to users. Related to Linux' growth in cloud computing is the well-known success of Linux on supercomputers, both in the high-performance computing (HPC) and high-availability (HA) areas, where academic research in physics and bioengineering, and firms in the financial and energy industries need reliable and scalable computing power to accomplish their goals. Many of the popular Web 2.0 services on the Internet, such as Twitter, Linked In, YouTube, and Google all rely on Linux as their operating system. As new web services arrive in the future, Linux will increasingly be the platform that drives these new technologies. The Birth of Linux On August 25, 1991, a Finn computer science student named Linus Torvalds made the following announcement to the Usenet group comp.os.minux: "I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) (among other things)." The “Minix” Torvalds referred to is a variant of the UNIX operating system, used as a guideline for his the free operating system he wanted to run on the x86-based consumer PCs of the day. “gnu” refers to the set of GNU (GNU Is Not Unix) tools first put together by Richard Stallman in 1983. UNIX, the operating system that started it all, had its origins in the old Bell Labs back in the early 60s. Torvalds built the core of the Linux operating system, known as the kernel. A kernel alone does not make an operating system, but Stallman's GNU tools were from a project to create an operating system as well--a project that was missing a kernel to make Stallman's operating system complete. Torvalds' matching of GNU tools with the Linux kernel marked the beginning of the Linux operating system as it is known today. Linux is in many ways still only at the beginning of its potential, even though it has enjoyed tremendous success since Torvalds' first request for help in 1991. Linux has gained strong popularity amongst UNIX developers, who like it for its portability to many platforms, its similarity to UNIX, and its free software license. Around the turn of the century, several commercial developers began to distribute Linux, including VA Linux, TurboLinux, Mandrakelinux, Red Hat, and SuSE GMbH. IBM's 2000 decision to invest $2 billion in Linux development and sales was a significant positive event to the growth of Linux. Today, Linux is a multi-billion dollar industry, with companies and governments around the world taking advantage of the operating system's security and flexibility. Thousands of companies use Linux for day-to-day use, attracted by the lower licensing and support costs. Governments around the world are deploying Linux to save money and time, with some governments commissioning their own versions of Linux. The analyst group IDC has projected Linux will be a $49 billion business by 2011, and there are many indications in the market that this figure will be achieved. The Code Linux is also unique from other operating systems in that it has no single owner. Torvalds still manages the development of the Linux kernel, but commercial and private developers contribute other software to make the whole Linux operating system. In this section, the parts of the Linux operating system will be examined. The Kernel All operating systems have kernels, built around the architectural metaphor that there must be a central set of instructions to direct device hardware, surrounded by various modular layers of functionality. The Linux kernel is unique and flexible because it is also modular in nature. The kernel of the Window operating system (which few people outside of Microsoft are allowed to look at without paying for the privilege) is a solidly connected piece of code, unable to be easily broken up into pieces. It is difficult (if not impossible) to pare down the Windows kernel to fit on a phone. This modularity is significant to the success of Linux. The ability to scale down (or up) to meet the needs of a specific platform is a big advantage over other operating systems constrained to just a few possible platforms. Modularity also effects stability and security as well. If one piece of the kernel code happens to fail, the rest of the kernel will not crash. Similarly, an illicit attack on one part of the kernel (or the rest of the operating system) might hamper that part of the code, but should not compromise the security of the whole device. The Operating System Developers need special tools (like the compilers and command lines found in GNU) to write applications that can talk to the kernel. They also need tools and applications to make it easy for outside applications to access the kernel after the application is written and installed. This collective set of tools, combined with a kernel, is known as the operating system. It is generally the lowest layer of the computer's software that is accessible by the average user. General users get to the operating system when they access the command line. Linux provides powerful tools with which to write their applications: developer environments, editors, and compilers are designed to take a developer's code and convert it to something that can access the kernel and get tasks done. Like the kernel, the Linux operating system is also modular. Developers can pick and choose the operating tools to provide users and developers with a new flavor of Linux designed to meet specific tasks. The Environments The windows, menus, and dialog boxes most people think of as part of the operating system are actually separate layers, known as the windowing system and the desktop environment. These layers provide the human-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) that enables users to easily work with applications in the operating system and third-party applications to be installed on the operating system. In Linux, there a lot of choices for which windowing system and desktop environment can be used, something that Linux allows users to decide. This cannot be done in Windows and it's difficult to do in OS X. Like the operating system and kernel, there are tools and code libraries available that let application developers to more readily work with these environments (e.g., gtk+ for GNOME, Qt for KDE). The Applications Operating systems have two kinds of applications: those that are essential components of the operating system itself, and those that users will install later. Closed operating systems, like Windows and OS X, will not let users (or developers) pick and choose the essential component applications they can use. Windows developers must use Microsoft's compiler, windowing system, and so on. Linux application developers have a larger set of choices to develop their application. This allows more flexibility to build an application, but it does mean a developer will need to decide which Linux components to use. The Distributions This is the highest layer of the Linux operating system: the container for all of the aforementioned layers. A distribution's makers have decided which kernel, operating system tools, environments, and applications to include and ship to users. Distributions are maintained by private individuals and commercial entities. A distribution can be installed using a CD that contains distribution-specific software for initial system installation and configuration. For the users, most popular distributions offer mature application management systems that allow users to search, find, and install new applications with just a few clicks of the mouse. There are, at last count, over 350 distinct distributions of Linux. Licensing Code is contributed to the Linux kernel under a number of licenses, but all code must be compatible with version 2 of the GNU General Public License (GPLv2), which is the license covering the kernel distribution as a whole. In practice, that means that all code contributions are covered either by GPLv2 (with, optionally, language allowing distribution under later versions of the GPL) or the three-clause BSD license. Any contributions which are not covered by a compatible license will not be accepted into the kernel. Copyright assignments are not required (or requested) for code contributed to the kernel. All code merged into the mainline kernel retains its original ownership; as a result, the kernel now has thousands of owners. One implication of this ownership structure is that any attempt to change the licensing of the kernel is doomed to almost certain failure. There are few practical scenarios where the agreement of all copyright holders could be obtained (or their code removed from the kernel). So, in particular, there is no prospect of a migration to version 3 of the GPL in the foreseeable future. It is imperative that all code contributed to the kernel be legitimately free software. For that reason, code from anonymous (or pseudonymous) contributors will not be accepted. All contributors are required to "sign off" on their code, stating that the code can be distributed with the kernel under the GPL. Code which has not been licensed as free software by its owner, or which risks creating copyright-related problems for the kernel (such as code which derives from reverse-engineering efforts lacking proper safeguards) cannot be contributed. Questions about copyright-related issues are common on Linux development mailing lists. Such questions will normally receive no shortage of answers, but one should bear in mind that the people answering those questions are not lawyers and cannot provide legal advice. If you have legal questions relating to Linux source code, there is no substitute for talking with a lawyer who understands this field. Relying on answers obtained on technical mailing lists is a risky affair. Community Linux communities come in two basic forms: developer and user communities. One of the most compelling features of Linux is that it is accessible to developers; anybody with the requisite skills can improve Linux and influence the direction of its development. Proprietary products cannot offer this kind of openness, which is a characteristic of the free software process. Developer communities can volunteer to maintain and support whole distributions, such as the Debian or Gentoo Projects. Novell and Red hat also support community-driven versions of their products, openSUSE and Fedora, respectively. The improvements to these community distros are then incorporated into the commercial server and desktop products from these companies. The Linux kernel itself is primarily supported by its developer community as well and is one of the largest and most active free software projects in existence. A typical three-month kernel development cycle can involve over 1000 developers working for more than 100 different companies (or for no company at all). With the growth of Linux has come an increase in the number of developers (and companies) wishing to participate in its development. Hardware vendors want to ensure that Linux supports their products well, making those products attractive to Linux users. Embedded systems vendors, who use Linux as a component in an integrated product, want Linux to be as capable and well-suited to the task at hand as possible. Distributors and other software vendors who base their products on Linux have a clear interest in the capabilities, performance, and reliability of the Linux kernel. Other developer communities focus on different applications and environments that run on Linux, such as Firefox, OpenOffice.org, GNOME, and KDE. End users, too, can make valuable contributions to the development of Linux. With online communities such as Linux.com, LinuxQuestions, and the many and varied communities hosted by distributions and applications, the Linux user base is an often vocal, usually positive advocate and guide for the Linux operating system. The Linux community is not just a presence online. Local groups known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) often meet to discuss issues regarding the Linux operating system, and provide other local users with free demonstrations, training, technical support, and installfests. Development Linux is an operating system that is comprised of many different development languages. A very large percentage of the distributions' code is written in either the C (52.86%) or C++ (25.56%) languages. All of the rest of the code falls into single-digit percentages, with Java, Perl, and Lisp rounding out the rest of the top 5 languages. The Linux kernel itself has an even more dominant C presence, with over 95 percent of the kernel's code written in that language. But other languages make up the kernel as well, making it more heterogenous than other operating systems. The kernel community has evolved its own distinct ways of operating which allow it to function smoothly (and produce a high-quality product) in an environment where thousands of lines of code are being changed every day. This means the Linux kernel development process differs greatly from proprietary development methods. The kernel's development process may come across as strange and intimidating to new developers, but there are good reasons and solid experience behind it. A developer who does not understand the kernel community's ways (or, worse, who tries to flout or circumvent them) will have a frustrating experience in store. The development community, while being helpful to those who are trying to learn, has little time for those who will not listen or who do not care about the development process. While many Linux developers still use text-based tools such as Emacs or Vim to develop their code, Eclipse, Anjuta, and Netbeans all provide more robust integrated development environments for Linux. The Business of Linux In 2008, IDC analyst Al Gillen cited a nearly 24 percent annual growth rate for the Linux industry, which puts a $21 billion 2007 technology at $49 billion in 2011. The companies involved in Linux include industry leaders such as IBM, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Oracle, Intel, Hitachi, NEC, and Novell. All have all invested time, talent, and resources to bettering Linux on their own and through the Linux Foundation. If Linux is free of cost, how does a Linux company generate revenue? One example of how a Linux business works: while nearly all of a Linux distribution's code is available for free download, the time and cost involved in actually downloading all of that code and putting it together in a cohesive and functional manner is significantly high. To avoid the timesink and the learning curve required to accomplish such a task, users can simply pay a distribution maker for the convenience of not having to build a free Linux from scratch. Businesses and individual users benefit from the distributors' expertise in putting all of the free Linux code into an easy-to-use set of packages. Another source of revenue for companies is ongoing commercial support for Linux. In fact, some distributions will allow users to download their software free of charge and build their entire revenue model on a services and support business plan. Linux is a platform that can generate revenue, all while still being free. Customers gain the knowledge that they are paying directly for support and convenience, and will always have a choice of which Linux systems will work for them best. Citing : the linux foundation . Copyright © 2014 Linux Foundation
    532 Posted by MSP Blogger
  • What is Linux Linux is, in simplest terms, an operating system. It is the software on a computer that enables applications and the computer operator to access the devices on the computer to perform desired functions. The operating system (OS) relays instructions from an application to, for instance, the computer's processor. The processor performs the instructed task, then sends the results back to the application via the operating system. Explained in these terms, Linux is very similar to other operating systems, such as Windows and OS X. But something sets Linux apart from these operating systems. The Linux operating system represented a $25 billion ecosystem in 2008. Since its inception in 1991, Linux has grown to become a force in computing, powering everything from the New York Stock Exchange to mobile phones to supercomputers to consumer devices. As an open operating system, Linux is developed collaboratively, meaning no one company is solely responsible for its development or ongoing support. Companies participating in the Linux economy share research and development costs with their partners and competitors. This spreading of development burden amongst individuals and companies has resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and unheralded software innovation. Over 1,000 developers, from at least 100 different companies, contribute to every kernel release. In the past two years alone, over 3,200 developers from 200 companies have contributed to the kernel--which is just one small piece of a Linux distribution. This article will explore the various components of the Linux operating system, how they are created and work together, the communities of Linux, and Linux's incredible impact on the IT ecosystem. Where is Linux? One of the most noted properties of Linux is where it can be used. Windows and OS X are predominantly found on personal computing devices such as desktop and laptop computers. Other operating systems, such as Symbian, are found on small devices such as phones and PDAs, while mainframes and supercomputers found in major academic and corporate labs use specialized operating systems such as AS/400 and the Cray OS. Linux, which began its existence as a server OS and Has become useful as a desktop OS, can also be used on all of these devices. “From wristwatches to supercomputers,” is the popular description of Linux' capabilities. The Future of Linux Linux is already successful on many different kinds of devices, but there are also many technological areas where Linux is moving towards, even as desktop and server development continues to grow faster than any other operating system today. Linux is being installed on the system BIOS of laptop and notebook computers, which will enable users to turn their devices on in a matter of seconds, bringing up a streamlined Linux environment. This environment will have Internet connectivity tools such as a web browser and an e-mail client, allowing users to work on the Internet without having to boot all the way into their device's primary operating system--even if that operating system is Windows. At the same time, Linux is showing up on mobile Internet devices (MIDs). This includes embedded devices such as smartphones and PDAs, as well as netbook devices--small laptop-type machines that feature the core functionality of their larger counterparts in a smaller, more energy-efficient package. The growth of cloud computing is a natural fit for Linux, which already runs many of the Internet's web servers. Linux enables cloud services such as Amazon's A3 to work with superior capability to deliver online applications and information to users. Related to Linux' growth in cloud computing is the well-known success of Linux on supercomputers, both in the high-performance computing (HPC) and high-availability (HA) areas, where academic research in physics and bioengineering, and firms in the financial and energy industries need reliable and scalable computing power to accomplish their goals. Many of the popular Web 2.0 services on the Internet, such as Twitter, Linked In, YouTube, and Google all rely on Linux as their operating system. As new web services arrive in the future, Linux will increasingly be the platform that drives these new technologies. The Birth of Linux On August 25, 1991, a Finn computer science student named Linus Torvalds made the following announcement to the Usenet group comp.os.minux: "I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) (among other things)." The “Minix” Torvalds referred to is a variant of the UNIX operating system, used as a guideline for his the free operating system he wanted to run on the x86-based consumer PCs of the day. “gnu” refers to the set of GNU (GNU Is Not Unix) tools first put together by Richard Stallman in 1983. UNIX, the operating system that started it all, had its origins in the old Bell Labs back in the early 60s. Torvalds built the core of the Linux operating system, known as the kernel. A kernel alone does not make an operating system, but Stallman's GNU tools were from a project to create an operating system as well--a project that was missing a kernel to make Stallman's operating system complete. Torvalds' matching of GNU tools with the Linux kernel marked the beginning of the Linux operating system as it is known today. Linux is in many ways still only at the beginning of its potential, even though it has enjoyed tremendous success since Torvalds' first request for help in 1991. Linux has gained strong popularity amongst UNIX developers, who like it for its portability to many platforms, its similarity to UNIX, and its free software license. Around the turn of the century, several commercial developers began to distribute Linux, including VA Linux, TurboLinux, Mandrakelinux, Red Hat, and SuSE GMbH. IBM's 2000 decision to invest $2 billion in Linux development and sales was a significant positive event to the growth of Linux. Today, Linux is a multi-billion dollar industry, with companies and governments around the world taking advantage of the operating system's security and flexibility. Thousands of companies use Linux for day-to-day use, attracted by the lower licensing and support costs. Governments around the world are deploying Linux to save money and time, with some governments commissioning their own versions of Linux. The analyst group IDC has projected Linux will be a $49 billion business by 2011, and there are many indications in the market that this figure will be achieved. The Code Linux is also unique from other operating systems in that it has no single owner. Torvalds still manages the development of the Linux kernel, but commercial and private developers contribute other software to make the whole Linux operating system. In this section, the parts of the Linux operating system will be examined. The Kernel All operating systems have kernels, built around the architectural metaphor that there must be a central set of instructions to direct device hardware, surrounded by various modular layers of functionality. The Linux kernel is unique and flexible because it is also modular in nature. The kernel of the Window operating system (which few people outside of Microsoft are allowed to look at without paying for the privilege) is a solidly connected piece of code, unable to be easily broken up into pieces. It is difficult (if not impossible) to pare down the Windows kernel to fit on a phone. This modularity is significant to the success of Linux. The ability to scale down (or up) to meet the needs of a specific platform is a big advantage over other operating systems constrained to just a few possible platforms. Modularity also effects stability and security as well. If one piece of the kernel code happens to fail, the rest of the kernel will not crash. Similarly, an illicit attack on one part of the kernel (or the rest of the operating system) might hamper that part of the code, but should not compromise the security of the whole device. The Operating System Developers need special tools (like the compilers and command lines found in GNU) to write applications that can talk to the kernel. They also need tools and applications to make it easy for outside applications to access the kernel after the application is written and installed. This collective set of tools, combined with a kernel, is known as the operating system. It is generally the lowest layer of the computer's software that is accessible by the average user. General users get to the operating system when they access the command line. Linux provides powerful tools with which to write their applications: developer environments, editors, and compilers are designed to take a developer's code and convert it to something that can access the kernel and get tasks done. Like the kernel, the Linux operating system is also modular. Developers can pick and choose the operating tools to provide users and developers with a new flavor of Linux designed to meet specific tasks. The Environments The windows, menus, and dialog boxes most people think of as part of the operating system are actually separate layers, known as the windowing system and the desktop environment. These layers provide the human-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) that enables users to easily work with applications in the operating system and third-party applications to be installed on the operating system. In Linux, there a lot of choices for which windowing system and desktop environment can be used, something that Linux allows users to decide. This cannot be done in Windows and it's difficult to do in OS X. Like the operating system and kernel, there are tools and code libraries available that let application developers to more readily work with these environments (e.g., gtk+ for GNOME, Qt for KDE). The Applications Operating systems have two kinds of applications: those that are essential components of the operating system itself, and those that users will install later. Closed operating systems, like Windows and OS X, will not let users (or developers) pick and choose the essential component applications they can use. Windows developers must use Microsoft's compiler, windowing system, and so on. Linux application developers have a larger set of choices to develop their application. This allows more flexibility to build an application, but it does mean a developer will need to decide which Linux components to use. The Distributions This is the highest layer of the Linux operating system: the container for all of the aforementioned layers. A distribution's makers have decided which kernel, operating system tools, environments, and applications to include and ship to users. Distributions are maintained by private individuals and commercial entities. A distribution can be installed using a CD that contains distribution-specific software for initial system installation and configuration. For the users, most popular distributions offer mature application management systems that allow users to search, find, and install new applications with just a few clicks of the mouse. There are, at last count, over 350 distinct distributions of Linux. Licensing Code is contributed to the Linux kernel under a number of licenses, but all code must be compatible with version 2 of the GNU General Public License (GPLv2), which is the license covering the kernel distribution as a whole. In practice, that means that all code contributions are covered either by GPLv2 (with, optionally, language allowing distribution under later versions of the GPL) or the three-clause BSD license. Any contributions which are not covered by a compatible license will not be accepted into the kernel. Copyright assignments are not required (or requested) for code contributed to the kernel. All code merged into the mainline kernel retains its original ownership; as a result, the kernel now has thousands of owners. One implication of this ownership structure is that any attempt to change the licensing of the kernel is doomed to almost certain failure. There are few practical scenarios where the agreement of all copyright holders could be obtained (or their code removed from the kernel). So, in particular, there is no prospect of a migration to version 3 of the GPL in the foreseeable future. It is imperative that all code contributed to the kernel be legitimately free software. For that reason, code from anonymous (or pseudonymous) contributors will not be accepted. All contributors are required to "sign off" on their code, stating that the code can be distributed with the kernel under the GPL. Code which has not been licensed as free software by its owner, or which risks creating copyright-related problems for the kernel (such as code which derives from reverse-engineering efforts lacking proper safeguards) cannot be contributed. Questions about copyright-related issues are common on Linux development mailing lists. Such questions will normally receive no shortage of answers, but one should bear in mind that the people answering those questions are not lawyers and cannot provide legal advice. If you have legal questions relating to Linux source code, there is no substitute for talking with a lawyer who understands this field. Relying on answers obtained on technical mailing lists is a risky affair. Community Linux communities come in two basic forms: developer and user communities. One of the most compelling features of Linux is that it is accessible to developers; anybody with the requisite skills can improve Linux and influence the direction of its development. Proprietary products cannot offer this kind of openness, which is a characteristic of the free software process. Developer communities can volunteer to maintain and support whole distributions, such as the Debian or Gentoo Projects. Novell and Red hat also support community-driven versions of their products, openSUSE and Fedora, respectively. The improvements to these community distros are then incorporated into the commercial server and desktop products from these companies. The Linux kernel itself is primarily supported by its developer community as well and is one of the largest and most active free software projects in existence. A typical three-month kernel development cycle can involve over 1000 developers working for more than 100 different companies (or for no company at all). With the growth of Linux has come an increase in the number of developers (and companies) wishing to participate in its development. Hardware vendors want to ensure that Linux supports their products well, making those products attractive to Linux users. Embedded systems vendors, who use Linux as a component in an integrated product, want Linux to be as capable and well-suited to the task at hand as possible. Distributors and other software vendors who base their products on Linux have a clear interest in the capabilities, performance, and reliability of the Linux kernel. Other developer communities focus on different applications and environments that run on Linux, such as Firefox, OpenOffice.org, GNOME, and KDE. End users, too, can make valuable contributions to the development of Linux. With online communities such as Linux.com, LinuxQuestions, and the many and varied communities hosted by distributions and applications, the Linux user base is an often vocal, usually positive advocate and guide for the Linux operating system. The Linux community is not just a presence online. Local groups known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) often meet to discuss issues regarding the Linux operating system, and provide other local users with free demonstrations, training, technical support, and installfests. Development Linux is an operating system that is comprised of many different development languages. A very large percentage of the distributions' code is written in either the C (52.86%) or C++ (25.56%) languages. All of the rest of the code falls into single-digit percentages, with Java, Perl, and Lisp rounding out the rest of the top 5 languages. The Linux kernel itself has an even more dominant C presence, with over 95 percent of the kernel's code written in that language. But other languages make up the kernel as well, making it more heterogenous than other operating systems. The kernel community has evolved its own distinct ways of operating which allow it to function smoothly (and produce a high-quality product) in an environment where thousands of lines of code are being changed every day. This means the Linux kernel development process differs greatly from proprietary development methods. The kernel's development process may come across as strange and intimidating to new developers, but there are good reasons and solid experience behind it. A developer who does not understand the kernel community's ways (or, worse, who tries to flout or circumvent them) will have a frustrating experience in store. The development community, while being helpful to those who are trying to learn, has little time for those who will not listen or who do not care about the development process. While many Linux developers still use text-based tools such as Emacs or Vim to develop their code, Eclipse, Anjuta, and Netbeans all provide more robust integrated development environments for Linux. The Business of Linux In 2008, IDC analyst Al Gillen cited a nearly 24 percent annual growth rate for the Linux industry, which puts a $21 billion 2007 technology at $49 billion in 2011. The companies involved in Linux include industry leaders such as IBM, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Oracle, Intel, Hitachi, NEC, and Novell. All have all invested time, talent, and resources to bettering Linux on their own and through the Linux Foundation. If Linux is free of cost, how does a Linux company generate revenue? One example of how a Linux business works: while nearly all of a Linux distribution's code is available for free download, the time and cost involved in actually downloading all of that code and putting it together in a cohesive and functional manner is significantly high. To avoid the timesink and the learning curve required to accomplish such a task, users can simply pay a distribution maker for the convenience of not having to build a free Linux from scratch. Businesses and individual users benefit from the distributors' expertise in putting all of the free Linux code into an easy-to-use set of packages. Another source of revenue for companies is ongoing commercial support for Linux. In fact, some distributions will allow users to download their software free of charge and build their entire revenue model on a services and support business plan. Linux is a platform that can generate revenue, all while still being free. Customers gain the knowledge that they are paying directly for support and convenience, and will always have a choice of which Linux systems will work for them best. Citing : the linux foundation . Copyright © 2014 Linux Foundation
    Jul 16, 2014 532
  • 29 Sep 2012
    If you sit down at set of sun And count the acts that you have done, And, counting, findOne self-denying deed, one wordThat eased the heart of him who heard, One glance most kindThat fell like sunshine where it went -Then you may count that day well spent   But if, though all the livelong day, You've cheered no heart, by yea or nay -If, through it allYou've nothing done that you can traceThat brought the sunshine to one face -No act most smallThat helped some soul and nothing cost -Then count that day as worse than lost.      
    10477 Posted by Irene Benas
  • If you sit down at set of sun And count the acts that you have done, And, counting, findOne self-denying deed, one wordThat eased the heart of him who heard, One glance most kindThat fell like sunshine where it went -Then you may count that day well spent   But if, though all the livelong day, You've cheered no heart, by yea or nay -If, through it allYou've nothing done that you can traceThat brought the sunshine to one face -No act most smallThat helped some soul and nothing cost -Then count that day as worse than lost.      
    Sep 29, 2012 10477
  • 14 Oct 2011
    A Costa Rica's crocodile named Pocho, who shot to fame around the world to frolic in the water with her trainer, Chito, was found dead of unknown causes, media reports said the Central American country.   Chito, whose real name is Gilberto Shedden and is nicknamed the "Tarzan Tico" said Wednesday at Channel 7, with tears in his eyes, which on Tuesday found dead the crocodile, whose body was sent to San Jose, Costa Rica to some specialists to determine the cause of death.   The bizarre "friendship" between Chito and Pocho, a reptile of five meters long and 450 kilos, began 20 years ago, when the man found badly injured in a river and brought it home "to die in peace "as recounted dozens of times.   "As he was dying, I began to heal and in time, we became inseparable friends," revealed Chito, 54, who interviewed television and magazines around the world, with its peculiar missed Sunday show.   Every Sunday, Chito was introduced in a huge pond with Pocho, where he played for hours in the nervous gaze of the public who came to the site, some 70 km east of the capital.   In one part of the show, he introduced the head into the gaping mouth of the crocodile. Other times, the animal climbed on his back or vice versa. At times, the coach kissed the reptile.   "For me, Pocho's like my brother, I cannot express what I feel for him because he is grateful. There are times when you help people and people often pay poorly, but not Pocho, Pocho so far I have not cheated, behaved very well, "said a while ago to the local press.
    4042 Posted by Jaquelina Misiura
  • A Costa Rica's crocodile named Pocho, who shot to fame around the world to frolic in the water with her trainer, Chito, was found dead of unknown causes, media reports said the Central American country.   Chito, whose real name is Gilberto Shedden and is nicknamed the "Tarzan Tico" said Wednesday at Channel 7, with tears in his eyes, which on Tuesday found dead the crocodile, whose body was sent to San Jose, Costa Rica to some specialists to determine the cause of death.   The bizarre "friendship" between Chito and Pocho, a reptile of five meters long and 450 kilos, began 20 years ago, when the man found badly injured in a river and brought it home "to die in peace "as recounted dozens of times.   "As he was dying, I began to heal and in time, we became inseparable friends," revealed Chito, 54, who interviewed television and magazines around the world, with its peculiar missed Sunday show.   Every Sunday, Chito was introduced in a huge pond with Pocho, where he played for hours in the nervous gaze of the public who came to the site, some 70 km east of the capital.   In one part of the show, he introduced the head into the gaping mouth of the crocodile. Other times, the animal climbed on his back or vice versa. At times, the coach kissed the reptile.   "For me, Pocho's like my brother, I cannot express what I feel for him because he is grateful. There are times when you help people and people often pay poorly, but not Pocho, Pocho so far I have not cheated, behaved very well, "said a while ago to the local press.
    Oct 14, 2011 4042
  • 01 Jul 2014
      France's largest bank BNP Paribas has agreed to a record $9bn (£5.1bn) settlement with US prosecutors over allegations of sanctions violations. As part of the deal, the bank will plead guilty to two criminal charges of breaking US sanctions against trade with Sudan, Iran and Cuba. It will also be prevented from clearing certain transactions in US dollars for one year from the start of 2015. The settlement is the largest for such a case in US history. "Between 2004 and 2012, BNP engaged in a complex and pervasive scheme to illegally move billions through the US financial system," said US Attorney General Eric Holder in a press conference. In doing so, the bank "deliberately and repeatedly violated longstanding US sanctions", he said  
    2561 Posted by MSP Blogger
  •   France's largest bank BNP Paribas has agreed to a record $9bn (£5.1bn) settlement with US prosecutors over allegations of sanctions violations. As part of the deal, the bank will plead guilty to two criminal charges of breaking US sanctions against trade with Sudan, Iran and Cuba. It will also be prevented from clearing certain transactions in US dollars for one year from the start of 2015. The settlement is the largest for such a case in US history. "Between 2004 and 2012, BNP engaged in a complex and pervasive scheme to illegally move billions through the US financial system," said US Attorney General Eric Holder in a press conference. In doing so, the bank "deliberately and repeatedly violated longstanding US sanctions", he said  
    Jul 01, 2014 2561
  • 25 Jul 2011
    Today I would like to bring to attention a very beautiful part of asian culture. It is a simbol that has been into my attention for more than one year, so , in the end, I just HAD to see what it means and where it comes from.    This article is about the Moon Rabbit/Jade Rabbit.   The first time I came into contact with this amazing simbol was when I was playing on Gaia online. I remember there was an item I could equip onto my avatar, that was representing a rabbit with a hammer. It was cute and white, with golden touches. I fell in love with it.   Then I kept bumping into it when I was watching anime or different parodies. So here is what I found about it:   "The Moon rabbit, also called the Jade Rabbit, is a rabbit that lives on the moon in folklore, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the moon as a rabbit. The story exists in many cultures, particularly in East Asian folklore, where it is seen pounding in a mortar and pestle. In Chinese folklore, it is often portrayed as a companion of the moon goddess Chang'e, constantly pounding the elixir of life for her; but in Japanese and Korean versions it is just pounding the ingredients for rice cake.      In the Buddhist Śaśajâtaka (Jataka Tale 316), a monkey, an otter, a jackal, and a rabbit resolved to practice charity on the day of the full moon (Uposatha), believing a demonstration of great virtue would earn a great reward.  When an old man begged for food, the monkey gathered fruits from the trees and the otter collected fish, while the jackal wrongfully pilfered a lizard and a pot of milk-curd. The rabbit, who knew only how to gather grass, instead offered its own body, throwing itself into a fire the man had built. The rabbit, however, was not burnt. The old man revealed himself to be Sakra and, touched by the rabbit's virtue, drew the likeness of the rabbit on the moon for all to see. It is said the lunar image is still draped in the smoke that rose when the rabbit cast itself into the fire." A version of this story can be found in the Japanese anthology Konjaku Monogatarishuu, where the rabbit's companions are a fox and a monkey. "   Here is the Japanese story: http://www.japanippon.com/fairytales/rabbitinthemoon.htm           pretty cute, right?   The Moon Rabbit is a simbol of self-sacrifice and overwhelming kindness. The rabbit who is never so strong on the outside, had the greatest strength on the inside -  the strength to put others before himself.    And as the rabbit was praised and honoured to the moon, so should these traits be. :D   It is a story we should all learn from.
    2355 Posted by Oana Florescu
  • Today I would like to bring to attention a very beautiful part of asian culture. It is a simbol that has been into my attention for more than one year, so , in the end, I just HAD to see what it means and where it comes from.    This article is about the Moon Rabbit/Jade Rabbit.   The first time I came into contact with this amazing simbol was when I was playing on Gaia online. I remember there was an item I could equip onto my avatar, that was representing a rabbit with a hammer. It was cute and white, with golden touches. I fell in love with it.   Then I kept bumping into it when I was watching anime or different parodies. So here is what I found about it:   "The Moon rabbit, also called the Jade Rabbit, is a rabbit that lives on the moon in folklore, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the moon as a rabbit. The story exists in many cultures, particularly in East Asian folklore, where it is seen pounding in a mortar and pestle. In Chinese folklore, it is often portrayed as a companion of the moon goddess Chang'e, constantly pounding the elixir of life for her; but in Japanese and Korean versions it is just pounding the ingredients for rice cake.      In the Buddhist Śaśajâtaka (Jataka Tale 316), a monkey, an otter, a jackal, and a rabbit resolved to practice charity on the day of the full moon (Uposatha), believing a demonstration of great virtue would earn a great reward.  When an old man begged for food, the monkey gathered fruits from the trees and the otter collected fish, while the jackal wrongfully pilfered a lizard and a pot of milk-curd. The rabbit, who knew only how to gather grass, instead offered its own body, throwing itself into a fire the man had built. The rabbit, however, was not burnt. The old man revealed himself to be Sakra and, touched by the rabbit's virtue, drew the likeness of the rabbit on the moon for all to see. It is said the lunar image is still draped in the smoke that rose when the rabbit cast itself into the fire." A version of this story can be found in the Japanese anthology Konjaku Monogatarishuu, where the rabbit's companions are a fox and a monkey. "   Here is the Japanese story: http://www.japanippon.com/fairytales/rabbitinthemoon.htm           pretty cute, right?   The Moon Rabbit is a simbol of self-sacrifice and overwhelming kindness. The rabbit who is never so strong on the outside, had the greatest strength on the inside -  the strength to put others before himself.    And as the rabbit was praised and honoured to the moon, so should these traits be. :D   It is a story we should all learn from.
    Jul 25, 2011 2355
  • 25 Feb 2011
  • 14 Feb 2011